HomeVitamin And Mineral Supplements Guide

Vitamin And Mineral Supplements Guide

Everyone needs to understand their vitamins and minerals, which is why I have put together this vitamin and mineral supplements guide to help you to make sure you are eating the right things. What we eat plays a huge part in how we feel and how healthy we stay.

Vitamin And Mineral Supplements

Vitamins A – Z

Please note that this post does contain affiliate links. This means that if you purchase something off of this page, I will get a small commission at no extra cost to you.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Another name for Vitamin A is retinol (preformed vitamin A) or beta-carotene (provitamin A).

Retinol, derived mostly from animal sources, is one of the most ell absorbed and efficiently used forms of vitamin A.

Plant sources called provitamin A carotenoids are derived from certain fruits and vegetables (like carrots and yellow or orange fruits). Carotenoids such as beta-carotene are converted into retinol by the body as needed. The majority of vitamin A is stored in the body’s liver and it plays an important role in eyesight and normal visual function.

It stimulates the base layer of the skin cells and keeps the mucous membranes healthy, which is why you find it in some many beauty products.

As an antioxidant, it helps protect cell membranes and tissue linings from the damaging effects of free radicals by neutralizing them, while playing an important role in immunity and strengthening resistance.

Get Too Much….. and you’ll notice dry eyes, scaling and peeling of the skin, hair loss, and brittle nails. You could also suffer dizziness, headaches, fatigue, and nausea.

Get Too Little….. and you’ll suffer visual impairment, night blindness, flaky scalp, brittle hair and inflamed gums.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin A?

Sweet Potato

Orange Fruits and Vegetables (e.g. apricots, butternut, carrots)

Dark Green Leafy Vegetables (e.g. spinach, broccoli)

Cod Liver Oil


Fortified Breakfast Cereals (like the one below)

Fortified Skim Milk

This is an example of fortified cereal. Ingredients include – Whole Grain Oats, Sugar, Corn Starch, Honey, Brown Sugar Syrup, Salt, Tripotassium Phosphate, Canola Oil, Natural Almond Flavor. Vitamin E (mixed tocopherols) Added to Preserve Freshness. Vitamins and Minerals: Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin C (sodium ascorbate), Iron and Zinc (mineral nutrients), A B Vitamin (niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride), Vitamin B1 (thiamin mononitrate), Vitamin A (palmitate), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), A B Vitamin (folic acid), Vitamin B12, Vitamin D3.

Click on the pictures to find out more about the featured products.

Vitamin B

There’s more than one vitamin, there is actually a list of them: B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, folic acid and biotin.

Vitamin B is commonly found in the same foods in nature and there is no B vitamin found in isolation. They have similar coenzyme functions, often needing each other to perform best.

A coenzyme is a small molecule needed for the activity of an enzyme, which acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions.

The B-complex vitamins are all water-soluble and aren’t stored very well in the body.

Deficiencies of one or more of th eB’s can occur fairly easily, especially during times of fasting or weight loss diets, especially with diets tat include substantial amounts of refined and precessed food, sugar and alcohol, or during time s of increased stress.

It is a good idea to include a B-complex supplement like this one, which would include all the vitamin Bs together, as together combined they provide essential maintenance for a healthy body.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B1 is required for the release of energy from glucose and for the transformation of carbohydrates to fat.

B1 provides excellent support to the nervous system and mental attitude.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B1?

Whole Grains



Lean Port

Wheat Germ



Get Too much…..and you may suffer headaches, convulsions, muscular weakness and irregular heartbeat.

Get Too Little….. and you’ll feel fatigued, unstable, and confused. The central nervous system won’t function optimally.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 assists with the metabolism of protein, fats an carbohydrates.

The body needs riboflavin to maintain the mucous membranes that are located throughout the digestive tract, as ell as for proper formation of red blood cells and the production of antibodies. It’s important for cell growth and benefits skin, hair, eyes and the connective tissues.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B2?




Oily Fish

Green, leafy vegetables

Wholegrain Cereals

Get too much….. and you’ll notice bright yellow urine. High doses are not recommended and may result in itching, numbness, and pins and needles.

Get too little….. and your lips and mouth corners may crack, your tongue will have a purplish color and your eyes will be sensitive to light.

Remember that stress and excessive exercise can also depleted stores of this vitamin.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin or Nicotinic Acid)

Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration. It helps in the release of energy, the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, proper circulation, and healthy skin.

It also aids in the functioning of the nervous system and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids.

B3 is important in the synthesis of sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.

People with diabetes, liver disease, or peptic ulcers should be cautious when using supplements with Niacin in them.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B3?

Lean Meat


Liver Yeast


Get too much….. and you’ll experience skin flushes, itching and possibly liver damage.

Get too little….. and you’ll notice skin irritations, appetite loss, nausea and fatigue.

Pellagra is the classic niacin deficiency disease and it is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and impaired glucose tolerance, which can ultimately lead to diabetes.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

B5 is known as the anti-stress vitamin and is used to relieve fatigue and stress through its support of the adrenal glands.

B5 plays a role in the secretion of a number of hormones, which assist metabolism, help to fight allergies and are beneficial in the maintenance of healthy skin and nerves.

It is also used in the release of energy as well as the metabolism of fat, protein and carbohydrates.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B3?




Get too much….. and you’ll run the risk of a bout of diarrhoea.

Get too little….. and you’ll experience symptoms like depression, fatigue, insomnia, headaches, nausea, tingling in the hands, and ‘burning feet’ syndrome.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

B6 is important because pyridoxine is required for balancing hormonal changes, assisting the immune system and the growth of new cells.

It’s used in the processing and metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, while assisting with controlling your mod.

B6 may assist in the prevention of skin problems.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B6?

Dark Green Vegetables



Wholegrain Cereals


Get too much….. and you ma suffer nerve-related problems, numbness of the feet, headaches, acne and abnormal liver functions tests.

Get too little….. and mood swings, depression, and loss of sexual drive are sometimes noted, as are mouth sores and fatigue.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

B12 is known as the energy vitamin. B12 is needed in the manufacture and maintenance of red blood cells, and it stimulates appetite, promotes growth and releases energy. It’s often used by older people to give an energy boost.

B12 is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the body, especially affecting the DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin B6?






Get too much….. and you’ll be OK. There have been no known topic effects from mega-doses of B12.

Get too little….. and a sore tongue, peripheral numbness, muscle weakness, memory loss, dementia, fatigue and anemia will occur.

Note that vegans are susceptible to B12 deficiency if no supplementation is used.


Biotin is also known as Vitamin H. It enables your body to process the fats, carbohydrates and proteins in food into energy that cells can use. Biotin plays an important role in the production of the fatty acids that ensure healthy heir, skin and nerves.

It’s even said to help prevent hair from turning grey. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level.

It is hard to obtain enough biotin from your diet, but luckily your friendly intestinal bacteria produce biotin.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin H?

Egg Yolks


Soya Beans


Sweet Potato


Get too much….. well, you can’t. Excesses are easily lost in the urine and there is no known toxicity.

Get too little….. and eczema and dermatitis may result.

Other signs of deficiency may include scaly, dry skin, reversible balding, nausea and loss of appetite.

Folic Acid

Folic Acid one of the building blocks of DNA and is important for red blood cell formation and energy production, as well as the forming of amino acids. It is essential for creating harm (the iron-containing substance in hemoglobin), crucial for oxygen transport, and is also needed to process homocysteine.

Which Foods Are Rich In Folic Acid?

Orange Juice


Wholegrain Cereals

Dark Green Leafy Vegetables

Get too much…..and there is an increased risk of cancer, particularly of the breast and colon.

Get too little….. and anaemia, spina bifida and cardiovascular disease may occur.

Vitamin C

Of course this vitamin and mineral supplements guide wouldn’t be complete without mentioning my favorite vitamin.

Vitamin C is well known as the scourge of scurvy. This water-soluble antioxidant vitamin helps your body resist infection, including the common cold. This means that even though you can’t always avoid getting sick, vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) makes it a little harder for your body to become infected and increases your chances of a quick recovery.

Vitamin C is important in the formation and maintenance of collagen, the basis of connective tissue, which is found in the skin, ligaments, cartilage, bones and teeth. Collagen is needed to give support and shape to the body.

You also need vitamin C to help with the absorption of iron from food.

You will need more vitamin C if. you have had excessive alcohol intake or are taking anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, HRT, medication for hypertension and painkillers.

Smokers require twice the amount of vitamin C than non-smokers.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin C?

Sweet red and green peppers

Citrus fruits


Kiwi fruit




Get too much….. and you can expect a bout of diarrhea, gastrointestinal disturbances, and an increased risk for kidney stones and gastric cancer.

Get too little….. and you’ll suffer from bleeding gums, poor healing of bruises and wounds, skin lesions and rheumatic leg pain.

Vitamin D

No bones about it, but vitamin D (calciferol) is the vitamin you need for strong bones and teeth.

Vitamin D is fat soluble and it helps your body to absorb calcium which is necessary for the normal development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. Evan with adequate calcium intake, if your vitamin D intake is low, you’ll have poor calcification of the bones. Vitamin D can be found in some food sources, but sunlight activates inactive vitamin D in our bodies, meaning that if you keep out of the sun completely, you may need to take a vitamin D supplement.

Keep in mind that the sun’s cation on the skin to produce vitamin D is inhibited by pollution, clouds, clothing, window glass and sunscreens.

Plant foods are fairly low in vitamin D, with mushrooms and dark leafy greens containing some. Strict vegetarians who do not get adequate exposure to sunlight need to make sure they are getting their recommended daily doses.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin D?

Oily Fish


Egg Yolk


Get too much….. and constipation, appetite loss, nausea and vomiting can result.

Get too little….. and rickets is the outcome in children, while in adults, loss of bone density can result in an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Because vitamin D is also known as the sunshine vitamin, and there are so many warnings to stay out of the sun because of skin cancer, here are some ways you can make sure you get adequate sunlight.

Open curtains and windows.

Encourage light on your bare skin

Sensible sunlight exposure of five to ten minutes on your arms, legs and face tow to three times per week before 11am and after 3pm is a good idea. If your skin is olive toned, you can build up to a half hour without any SPF protection.

Vitamin E

This hard working vitamin is fat-soluble and maintains many of our body’s tissues, like this in your eyes, skin and liver.

Vitamin E protects your lungs from pollution damage and is important for the formation of red blood cells and blood circulation.

Basically Vitamin E’s function is to modify and stabilize blood fats so that the blood vessels, heart and entire body are better protected from free-radical-induced injury.

Vitamin E is commonly used externally to help repair dry skin, abrasions, and scars. Natural forms of vitamin E have been shown to be better than synthetic forms.

Which Foods are Rich In Vitamin E?

Whole grains such as what and oats

Leafy green vegetables

Avocado and sunflower oil

Nuts and Seeds


Egg Yolks

Wheat Germ

Get Too Much….. and you may suffer impaired liver storage, impaired bone mineralization, and delayed blood clotting.

Get Too Little….. and you risk damage to neuromuscular, vascular and reproductive systems.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K also plays an important role in producing the proteins that keep your teeth and bones healthy. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and is made by bacteria that live in your colon. It’s then absorbed back into your bloodstream and put out to work.

Vitamin K products fall into the medicines category with the Department of Health and supplementation should only be used under medical supervision.

Newborn babies are not given vitamin K injections as a matter of course to improve their blood clotting abilities.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin K?


Turnip greens

Dark lettuces


Dairy products



Get Too Much…..and it can cause liver damage and problems such as jaundice in children.

Get Too Little…..and you’ll notice increased bruising and poor blood clotting with subsequent bleeding. The long-term consequence could be hemorrhaging leading to anemia.


Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid compound that is abundant as a pigment in plants. Lutein (and zeaxanthin) are the dominant carotenoids present in the macular region of the retina and are linked to normal function of the retina, which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision, meaning lutein plays an important role in maintaining healthy eyes and eyesight.

Which Foods Are Rich In Lutein?

Egg Yolks

Leafy Green Vegetables


You can’t get too much or to little Lutein.

Omega 3

Omega 3 essential fatty acids are necessary for human health, but cannot be produced by your body, so we have to consume them in our diets or consider taking a well-rounded omega-3 supplement.

A diet rich in omega 3 can be beneficial for the cardiovascular system and has anti-inflammatory properties. Omega 3 fatty acids also support brain cell function and eye health.

Internationally recognized organizations like the World Healthy Organization recommend 500mg of EPA and DHA per day for a healthy adult. Always check the EPA an DHA content in a supplement, as these are the beneficial omega 3 oils.

For non pregnant adults the recommendation is to have the EPA:DHA ratio at 2:1.

Which Foods Are Rich In Omega 3?

Omega 3 fatty acids (polyunsaturated fats) in the form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and elcosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are mainly found in fish such as hiring, mackerel, tuna, salmon an trout.

Vitamin And Mineral Supplements Guide Continued….

Minerals A – Z


Boron is a trace mineral, meaning that small amounts are required for health. The importance of boron in the diet is only beginning to be understood. In fact, little was known about the relation between boron and health until the eighties.

As the mineral has gained more attention, it’s become apparent that it functions as an activating agent, triggering various functions in the body that are necessary for life. For example, it helps to regulate levels of other essential minerals, infusing calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, suggesting the boron may play a role in preventing osteoporosis. Boron also appears to be involved in the metabolism of hormones, in particular, it raises testosterone levels in men and helps to build muscle.

Boron affects memory and brain function, and it keeps cell walls strong so that proper transfer of nutrients can occur throughout the body. Because of its involvement in so many processes in the body, boron deficiency can result in numerous health problems.

If you live in a hot climate or are physically active, excessive sweating and taking diuretics can increase the loss of many trace minerals, like boron.

Which Foods Are Rich In Boron?







Get too much….. and you may get a rash, diarrhea and circulatory problems.

Get too little….. and you should watch for the deficiency sign of depression, arthritis, hormonal imbalance, muscle pain or weakness, and weak bones.


This is an ultra-trace mineral in it is needed in very small quantities to perform its essential functions. It plays an important role in controlling blood sugar levels, appearing to enhance the performance of the hormone insulin and is part of the glucose tolerance factor.

Insulin controls the levels of sugar in the blood, as well as playing a role in the storage of fat.

Which Foods Are Rich In Chromium?






Get too much….. and you could get skin lesions, but toxicity is not common.

Get too little….. and you’ll suffer poor blood sugar control, such as found in diabetics, low blood sugar, dizziness and irritability after three hours without any food, a need for frequent meals, sleepiness at odd times, a craving for sweet foods and excessive thirst.


There is more calcium in your body than any other mineral. The body stores more than 99% of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help build and keep them strong.

Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels interact and expand to secrete hormones and enzymes, and to send messages through the nervous system, as well as to help signal the heart to contrast in an attempt to maintain a balance of calcium outside and inside the heart cells.

Over time our bones begin to weaken, making one susceptible to bone disease, which affects one in three women and one in five men. When choosing a calcium supplement, it’s important to take a proud that contains a minimum of 500-600mg elemental calcium- the calcium that your body can use, together with vitamin D and other bone-friendly minerals to ensure optimal absorption of calcium for healthy bones.

Exercise also helps to build strong bones.

What Foods Are Rich In Calcium?




Sesame seeds



Soya beans

Get too much….. and calcium deposits find their way into the soft tissues such as your kidneys. You may also experience constipation.

Get too little….. and your risk for osteoporosis, muscle spasms and cramps increases.


Copper is a natural element that is an essential micronutrient for the wellbeing of all aerobic life forms.

Although our bodies require only a mall amount of copper, it contribution to human health is undeniable and it is as important as calcium, iron and zinc.

Copper plays a vital part in the development and performance of your nervous and cardiovascular systems, as well as the skin, bone, immune and reproductive systems.

Copper is present in our bodies from conception and helps a developing infant’s heart, skeletal and nervous systems, as well as arteries and blood vessels.

Copper continues to play a vital role as we age, keeping our hair and skin in good condition while repairing and maintaining connective tissue in our hearts and arteries.

Which Foods Are Rich In Copper?

Nuts, especially Cashew nuts


Seeds, like poppy and sunflower



Wheat Bran Cereals

Get too much….. and you may face copper poisoning, which includes nausea, vomiting, abdominal and muscle pain and, in the long term, copper-induced cirrhosis of the liver.

Get too little…..and you’ll feel fatigued and suffer from skin sores, slow growth, changes in hair texture, loss of appetite, and dermatitis.


Fluoride plays a role in the development and health of bones and teeth. It hardens your bones and tooth enamel being absorbed into a child’s teeth as they form.

Fluoride is more commonly found as an additive to toothpaste and mouthwash for the prevention of tooth decay. There is still some question as to whether it is an essential element.

You can certainly get the required amount from your diet if you eat the foods rich in fluoride.

People who eat large quantities o fish and seafood such as those in the Caribbean, have been shown to have stronger teeth and ewer incidents of dental cavities.

Which Foods Are Rich In Fluoride?



Calf’s liver

Tinned sardines

Tinned salmon

Tea, but not the herbal variety

Get too much…. and your teeth will be discolored.

Get too little….. and your bones may become brittle and tooth cavities may result.


Iodine is a vital micronutrient which helps the thyroid gland, found in the neck, to produce hormones crucial to development.

A lack of iodine is also the leading cause of preventable mental and developmental disabilities worldwide. Millions of children are born each year with a reduced ability to learn because their mothers lacked sufficient iodine in their diets during pregnancy. he deficiency can lower a child’s IQ by between 10 and 15 points.

Your body does not store iodine, so you must obtain it from your diet.

You may know iodine’s external use too: iodine solutions are commonly used as antiseptics and can kill bacteria and fungi.

True iodine allergies are extremely rare.

A shellfish allergy is rarely caused by iodine itself, but by a muscle protein present in these sea animals.

Iodine is normally added to table salt.

Which Foods Are Rich In Iodine?





Iodated Salt

Get too much…..and it could change the way your thyroid gland works. You could experience a metallic taste in your mouth, oral sores and headaches.

Get too little…..and your thyroid gland may become underachieve, resulting in weight gain.

Get too little…..and your thyroid gland may become underachieve, resulting in weight gain.


Iron is an essential mineral, which has many functions in the body. Iron from the diet is a crucial part of haemoglobin which is the substance that carries oxygen in the blood. It is therefore important at all stages of life to have sufficient iron for the blood to work efficiently.

Iron is also required for energy metabolism and is necessary for neurological development o developing embryos, as well as for the normal function of the immune system.

Iron deficiency anaemia is probably the most common nutritional deficiency in the world.

The high fibre content of fruit and vegetable can prevent the aborption or iron and for this reason strict vegetarians may have trouble obtaining sufficient iron from diet alone.

Which Foods Are Rich In Iron?

Red Meat

Dark Green Leafy Vegetables

Blackstrap Molasses


Get too much…..and it could be toxic, High doses of iron can cause nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and constipation. Store iron supplements out of reach of children as an iron overdose can be very dangerous.

Get too little…..and you could become anemic, leaving you feeling tired, irritable, and less able to concentrate or cause brittle, concave nails, dizziness, and hair loss.

In children it can affect behavior and development.


Magnesium is a very important macro-mineral that is stored in your body tissues.

It plays a role in more than 300 enzymatic reactions within your body. It’s vital for the growth and maintenance of teeth and bones, and for the relaxation of muscles.

This versatile mineral is needed for the development and functioning of a healthy heart and nervous system.

It also helps ensure the proper release of energy from ingested food, as wells ensuring the maintenance of cell walls. Magnesium is essential for the correct transportation of glucose in the bloodstream and the release of the hormone insulin, which helps control blood sugar levels.

Protein-rich foods such as chicken, fish and meat aid the absorption of magnesium, along with the intake of calcium, phosphorus and zinc and the vitamins B1, B6, C and D.

It’s found in important organs such as the pancreas, liver, pituitary gland and intestinal tissues.

Which Foods Are Rich In Magnesium?

Dark Chocolate

Leafy dark veggies

Nuts (hazel, cashed, almond, Brazil)



Get Too Much….. and you could suffer from diarrhea. There isn’t enough evidence to say what the effects might be of taking high doses of magnesium for a long time.

Get Too Little….. and expect nausea and vomiting, fatigue, insomnia, muscle weakness, cramps and food cravings.


Manganese triggers the activity of enzymes in the body, including those that help proteins to be used as food and one that breaks down free draicals.

It also assists in the production of sex hormones and helps maintain healthy joints and bone structure.

It assists in the production of the thyroid hormones that control the rate of the body’s metabolism and is thought to help balance blood sugar levels.

Manganese also aids the formation of collagen, which helps heal wounds.

It may also lower the risk of osteoporosis.

Adults have a total manganese content of 20mg found in the liver, bones, pancreas and pituitary gland.

Which Foods Are Rich In Manganese?


Whle grains


Egg yolks



Get Too Much…..miners, for example, may suffer Parkinson’s-type symptoms and hepatic dysfunction.

Get Too Little….. and fertility is reduced, disk and cartilage problems occur and poor memory is experienced.


Its name is one of the more difficult to pronounce ant it’s not very well known, however, this mineral’s importance has been discovered in recent years. Although not considered one of our essential trace minerals, molybdenum is a mineral that acts as a co-factor to a number of the important enzymes needed for nutrition, fertility and the immune system.

It helps your body manufacture enzymes, such as those needed to utilize the energy from the fats and carbohydrates you eat, as well as helping your body make use of the iron you ingest, sustain mental alertness, maintain fertility and potency, and prevent tooth decay. Molybdenum is also essential for blood sugar balance.

The concentration of molybdenum in food varies considerably depending on the environment in which the food was grown.

Further, vegetables grown on neutral or alkaline soil are rich in this element.

Which Foods Are Rich In Molybdenum

Dark Green Vegetables

Whle Grains

Milk Products



Get Too Much….. and it may be toxic. There is not much information on this, but look out for high uric acid levels and gout type arthritis.

Get Too Little….. and problems like rapid heart rate and rapid breathing could occur, and even mental abnormalities.


Phosphorus is an important nutrient for the growth and development of bone and soft tissue. It is stored mainly in your bones and is vital for energy production, as well as the structure of your DNA. Phosphorus combines with calcium to form calcium phosphate, which is needed for keeping your bones in good condition.

About 80 percent of the body’s phosphorus is stored in the skeleton. Evidence suggests that dietary phosphorus plays a pivotal role in the development of bone mass and comprises half the weight of bones.

Intake of extra phosphorus may help broken bones heal and reduce the loss of minerals from immobile limbs.

If you use a lot of antacids which contain aluminum, you may impair gut absorption of phosphates.

Which Foods Are Rich In Phosphorus?





Get Too Much….. and your bone density could reduce.

Get Too Little….. and muscle weakness could be the result. Look out for kidney stones, fatigue, twitching, and spasms of the muscles as indicators, as well as loss of appetite.


Potassium is one of the main blood minerals called electrolytes (the others are sodium and chloride), which creates a fluid balance, also known as osmotic equilibrium. Potassium is stored in your body’s cells and together with sodium and chloride, is essential for the pH balance of the whole body.

Potassium ensures that your body is neither too alkaline nor too acidic. It also plays a vital role in the functioning of your muscles, heart, nerve cells, kidneys and adrenal glands. Potassium also helps to prevent calcium from being lost in your urine.

Diarrhea, vomitting and profuse sweating may rapidly reduce potassium levels.

What Foods Are Rich In Potassium?

Potatoes, especially the skin






Get Too Much….. and hyperkalemia could result (often caused by kidney disease) – a condition where you have excess potassium in the blood.

Symptoms include irregular heartbeat, fatigue and numbness.

Get Too Little….. and you may struggle with hypertension, persistent muscle cramps, muscle weakness, disorientation, irritability, and confusion.


Selenium is a trace mineral essential for many body processes and is found in soil. If the soil is not rich in selenium, the food source will have low levels in you body. Selenium is present in virtually every cell, but is most abundant in the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas and testes.

Researchers only discovered the importance of this mineral in 1979, but it quickly gained prominence as a potentially powerful cancer fighter.

Many experts now believe it could prove to be one of the most important disease fighting nutrients. Selenium acts as an antioxidant, booking the rogue molecules known as free radicals that damage DNA.

It is part of the antioxidant enzyme that protects cells against environment and dietary toxins and helps guard against a range of disorders thought to be caused by free radical damage.

It also fights viral infections. Selenium bonds with metals such as mercury and arsenic, preventing them from causing illness, and it keeps sperm and the prostate gland healthy in men.

Which Foods Are Rich In Selenium?

Brazil nuts

Cashews and Walnuts

Fish, including sole and tuna

Get Too Much….. and changes in your skin and nails may occur. You will also feel nauseous and have gastrointestinal upsets, including ‘garlic’ breath or a metallic taste in your mouth.

Get Too Little….. and otherwise benign viruses can become active, leading to infections.

It is thought a selenium deficiency could increase the risk of premature skin wrinkling.


About a third of the 120mg of the mineral sodium in your body is found in your bones. The rest is in your body fluids. It mostly occurs in combination with chloride as salt, or sodium chloride.

For millennia, the human species lived on a natural diet containing less than one gram per day of sodium and high blood pressure was very rare. Nowadays 5 to 12 grams and higher amounts of salt are consumed by people eating processed foods or as salt added while cooking and preparing foods.

High blood pressure is now an epidemic in many countries. Sodium helps your body maintain its water balance – where sodium goes, water goes – and pH. It enables your cell walls to draw in nutrients and plays a role in muscle contraction.

Sodium can be used in treating heatstroke and leg cramps.

Which Foods Are Rich In Sodium:


Beef and Poultry



Table Salt

Get Too Much….. and hypertension is a common result.

Get Too Little….. and you may experience dizziness, low blood pressure, nausea and vomiting, heat exhaustion, poor appetite, lack of concentration, and dehydration.


Zinc is a mineral distributed in the body’s organs, tissues and fluids and is crucial for the proper function of more than 70 enzymes.

It has a pivotal role in the growth of children and is crucial to the development of healthy sperm and male hormones.

It’s essential for a healthy immune system and for the healing of wounds. You’ll find zinc in many cold lozenges and some over the counter medicines sold as cold remedies.

Zinc has been shown to enhance other white blood cell functions. Those with allergies and environmental sensitivities may benefit from zinc supplementation. Zinc helps to rid the body of harmful metals such as lead and cadmium, which could aggravate hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart desires. It’s also vital for the release of insulin and for keeping the senses of taste, sight and smell in good working order.

Which Foods Are Rich In Zinc?

Baked beans

Calf’s liver



Pecan Nuts


Get Too Much….. and your ability to absorb copper decreases. You may also suffer gastrointestinal irritations, nausea and vomiting, and sometimes dizziness and drowsiness.

Get Too Little….. and you are more likely to be susceptible to infections with delayed wound healing and skin lesions. Hair loss is a sign of deficiency, as is a decrease in your taste sensation. A zinc deficiency is linked to prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland).

That completes my vitamin and mineral supplements guide, but let’s have a quick look at what role antioxidants play in the body.


Your immune system is your body’s natural defense against infection. Every day you are exposed to risk factors such as air pollution, smoke, diet imbalances or even sunlight which increase the number of free radicals in your body. These free radicals can build up over time and may damage the healthy cells in your body, which may compromise your immune system.

Antioxidants are substances found in certain foods that are capable of neutralizing free radicals before they can react and cause harm to your tissues and cells. They aid in stabilizing these molecules that attach to your otherwise healthy cells, causing disease or malfunction. Research suggest that an adequate intake of antioxidants from an early age can play a protective role against the development of – or at the very least delay the onset of certain degenerative diseases.

To get your antioxidants you need to eat fresh fruit and vegetables. Fresh is better than cooking, because boiling or frying or even microwaving causes a significant reduction of the polyphenol content in fruits and vegetables.

Research shows that most of us eat only about 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day on average, with less than one fruit a day. The international recommended intake of fruits and vegetables for good health is between five and nine portions of antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetables per day. A portion is measured as 80g.

Lifestyle diseases are the leading cause of death globally and they strike hardest at the world’s low and middle income populations.

Getting a complete supplement like Centrum can only help you to build a strong and healthy immune system.

Centrum also has added antioxidants to ensure your body is able to fight off diseases and you can get the extra supplementation that your diet doesn’t manage to supply you with.

I trust that this comprehensive vitamin and mineral supplements guide will help you to make healthier choices when it comes to what you put into your body.